Gold Bitcoin Coins

The Ultimate Cryptocurrency Investing Bible: A Comprehensive Guide to Maximizing Profits

Welcome to The Ultimate Cryptocurrency Investing Bible: A Comprehensive Guide to Maximizing Profits. In this article, we will delve into the exciting world of cryptocurrency investing, providing you with essential knowledge and practical strategies to help you make informed decisions and maximize your profits. Whether you are a novice or an experienced investor, this guide will equip you with the necessary tools to navigate the complex and rapidly evolving cryptocurrency market. Get ready to embark on an enlightening journey that will empower you to take advantage of the lucrative opportunities that cryptocurrencies offer!

1. Introduction

Cryptocurrency investing has become increasingly popular in recent years, with more and more people looking to maximize their profits in this digital financial landscape. Whether you are a seasoned investor or a beginner in the world of cryptocurrencies, this comprehensive guide aims to provide you with all the essential information and strategies to help you navigate the complex world of cryptocurrency investing. From understanding the basics of blockchain technology to analyzing market trends and making informed investment decisions, this guide covers it all. So, grab your notepad and get ready to dive into the ultimate cryptocurrency investing bible!

1.1. What is cryptocurrency investing?

Cryptocurrency investing refers to the practice of buying, holding, and trading digital currencies with the aim of making a profit. Cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin, are decentralized digital assets that use cryptography for secure transactions and control the creation of new units. Unlike traditional fiat currencies issued by governments, cryptocurrencies operate on a technology called blockchain, which is a distributed ledger that records all transactions across a network of computers.

Investing in cryptocurrencies has gained significant popularity in recent years due to the potential for high returns. The volatile nature of the cryptocurrency market allows for the possibility of substantial profits in a short period. However, it also carries a significant level of risk, as the market can experience rapid fluctuations and price corrections.

Cryptocurrency investing involves various strategies, including long-term holding, short-term trading, and participating in Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs). Investors can choose to invest in well-established cryptocurrencies or explore promising new projects. Additionally, some investors engage in active trading, taking advantage of price movements and market trends to generate profits.

To maximize profits in cryptocurrency investing, it is crucial to conduct thorough research, analyze market trends, and stay updated with the latest news and developments in the industry. Understanding the fundamentals of blockchain technology and evaluating the potential of different cryptocurrencies is also essential. As the market is highly speculative, it is advisable to only invest what one can afford to lose.

In this comprehensive guide, we will delve deeper into the world of cryptocurrency investing, exploring different strategies, risk management techniques, and important factors to consider. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced investor, this guide aims to provide valuable insights and help you make informed decisions in your cryptocurrency investment journey.

1.2. Why should you consider cryptocurrency investing?

Cryptocurrency investing has emerged as a potentially lucrative opportunity for individuals seeking to maximize their profits. With the rise of digital currencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin, more and more people are considering this alternative form of investment. But what makes cryptocurrency investing so appealing?

Firstly, cryptocurrencies offer a decentralized and secure way of conducting transactions. Unlike traditional banking systems, digital currencies operate on a technology called blockchain, which ensures transparency and immutability. This makes cryptocurrency transactions resistant to fraud and hacking, providing investors with a greater sense of security.

Secondly, cryptocurrency investing allows for global accessibility. Anyone with an internet connection can participate in this market, regardless of their location or financial status. This level playing field opens up opportunities for individuals who may have been excluded from traditional investment avenues.

Additionally, cryptocurrencies have shown tremendous growth potential. Bitcoin, for example, experienced a significant surge in value over the past decade, making early investors millionaires. Although the market is highly volatile, it presents a unique opportunity for those willing to take calculated risks.

Furthermore, cryptocurrency investing offers diversification for investment portfolios. By including digital assets alongside traditional stocks and bonds, investors can spread their risks and potentially increase their overall returns.

Lastly, the growing acceptance of cryptocurrencies by mainstream institutions and businesses adds credibility to this market. Major companies like PayPal and Tesla have started accepting digital currencies as a form of payment, signaling a shift towards wider adoption.

In conclusion, cryptocurrency investing has gained traction due to its decentralized nature, global accessibility, growth potential, diversification benefits, and increasing acceptance. As with any investment, it is important to conduct thorough research and exercise caution. This comprehensive guide aims to provide you with the knowledge and tools necessary to navigate the world of cryptocurrency investing and maximize your profits.

1.3. Common misconceptions about cryptocurrency investing

Cryptocurrency investing has gained significant popularity in recent years. However, there are several misconceptions surrounding this type of investment that need to be addressed. In this section, we will explore some common misconceptions about cryptocurrency investing and debunk them with facts and insights.

1.4. Important factors to consider before investing in cryptocurrencies

Cryptocurrency investing has gained immense popularity in recent years, with many individuals looking to maximize their profits in this emerging market. However, before diving into the world of cryptocurrencies, it is crucial to consider certain factors that can greatly impact your investment strategy. This section will explore the important factors that should be taken into account before investing in cryptocurrencies, helping you make informed decisions and increase your chances of success.

1.5. How to get started with cryptocurrency investing

Cryptocurrency investing has become increasingly popular in recent years, with many individuals looking to maximize profits in this exciting and volatile market. Before diving into the world of cryptocurrency investing, it is essential to understand the basics and get started on the right foot.

In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the steps of getting started with cryptocurrency investing. Whether you are a beginner or have some experience in the financial markets, this guide will provide you with the necessary knowledge and tools to make informed investment decisions.

Firstly, it is important to understand what cryptocurrency is. Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual form of currency that uses cryptography for security. Unlike traditional fiat currencies, such as the US Dollar or Euro, cryptocurrencies are decentralized and operate on a technology called blockchain.

To get started with cryptocurrency investing, you will need a few essential elements. Firstly, you will need a digital wallet to store your cryptocurrencies securely. A digital wallet is a software application that allows you to send, receive, and store your digital assets. There are various types of wallets available, including online wallets, hardware wallets, and mobile wallets.

Next, you will need to choose a cryptocurrency exchange. A cryptocurrency exchange is a platform where you can buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrencies. It is essential to research and choose a reputable exchange that offers a wide range of cryptocurrencies, has good security measures in place, and provides a user-friendly interface.

Once you have set up your wallet and chosen a cryptocurrency exchange, it is important to educate yourself about the different cryptocurrencies available. Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin are some of the most well-known cryptocurrencies, but there are thousands of others to choose from. Each cryptocurrency has its own unique features, use cases, and potential for growth.

Before investing your hard-earned money, it is crucial to conduct thorough research and analysis. Cryptocurrency markets can be highly volatile, and prices can fluctuate rapidly. It is important to understand the factors that can influence the price of a cryptocurrency, such as market demand, technological advancements, regulatory developments, and investor sentiment.

In conclusion, getting started with cryptocurrency investing requires a solid understanding of the basics, the right tools, and a willingness to conduct thorough research. This guide will serve as a comprehensive resource to help you navigate the world of cryptocurrency investing and maximize your profits.

2. Different Types of Cryptocurrencies

Cryptocurrencies have gained immense popularity in recent years, offering investors a unique opportunity to maximize their profits. With numerous types of cryptocurrencies available in the market, it can be overwhelming to understand the differences between them. In this section, we will explore some of the different types of cryptocurrencies that you should consider when investing.

1. Bitcoin (BTC): Bitcoin is the most well-known and widely used cryptocurrency. It was the first digital currency to be introduced and remains the most valuable one. Bitcoin operates on a decentralized network called blockchain, which ensures secure and transparent transactions.

2. Ethereum (ETH): Ethereum is another popular cryptocurrency that has gained significant traction. It is not just a digital currency but also a platform for building decentralized applications (DApps). Ethereum’s native currency is called Ether, and it is used to fuel transactions and smart contracts on the Ethereum network.

3. Ripple (XRP): Ripple is a unique cryptocurrency that focuses on fast and low-cost international money transfers. It aims to provide seamless cross-border payment solutions for financial institutions and individuals. Ripple’s digital asset, XRP, is used as a bridge currency for transferring value between different fiat currencies.

4. Litecoin (LTC): Created by Charlie Lee, a former Google engineer, Litecoin is often referred to as the silver to Bitcoin’s gold. It was designed to offer faster transaction confirmation times and a different hashing algorithm. Litecoin has gained popularity for its ability to handle a higher volume of transactions.

5. Bitcoin Cash (BCH): Bitcoin Cash is a cryptocurrency that was created as a result of a hard fork from the original Bitcoin network. It was designed to address the scalability issues of Bitcoin by increasing the block size limit. Bitcoin Cash aims to provide faster and cheaper transactions compared to Bitcoin.

These are just a few examples of the different types of cryptocurrencies available in the market. Each cryptocurrency has its own unique features, use cases, and potential for growth. It is essential to conduct thorough research and analysis before investing in any cryptocurrency to make informed investment decisions.

2.1. Bitcoin (BTC)

Bitcoin (BTC) is the most well-known and widely used cryptocurrency in the world. It was created in 2009 by an anonymous person or group of people using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin operates on a decentralized network called blockchain, which allows for secure and transparent transactions without the need for intermediaries like banks.

Bitcoin’s popularity stems from its potential as a store of value and a medium of exchange. It has gained mainstream acceptance and is now accepted by many businesses and merchants worldwide. Bitcoin is also highly volatile, with its value fluctuating rapidly, making it a popular choice for traders and investors.

One of the key features of Bitcoin is its limited supply. There will only ever be 21 million bitcoins in existence, which adds to its scarcity and perceived value. This makes Bitcoin different from traditional fiat currencies, which can be printed and controlled by governments.

Bitcoin can be acquired through various means, including mining, where powerful computers solve complex mathematical problems to validate transactions on the blockchain. It can also be purchased on cryptocurrency exchanges using traditional currencies or other cryptocurrencies.

As the first cryptocurrency, Bitcoin has paved the way for the development of thousands of other cryptocurrencies, often referred to as altcoins. These alternative cryptocurrencies offer different features and use cases, catering to various industries and user needs.

While Bitcoin remains the dominant cryptocurrency, it is important for investors to consider and diversify their cryptocurrency portfolio by exploring other types of cryptocurrencies. This can help spread the investment risk and potentially maximize profits.

In the following sections, we will explore some of the different types of cryptocurrencies that exist today and their unique characteristics.

2.2. Ethereum (ETH)

Ethereum (ETH) is one of the most popular and widely recognized cryptocurrencies in the market. Launched in 2015 by Vitalik Buterin, Ethereum is a decentralized platform that enables developers to build and deploy smart contracts and decentralized applications (DApps). Unlike Bitcoin, which primarily serves as a digital currency, Ethereum offers a broader range of functionalities.

One of the key features of Ethereum is its ability to create and execute smart contracts. These self-executing contracts are coded with predefined rules and conditions, eliminating the need for intermediaries in various transactions. This makes Ethereum a preferred platform for decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, including lending, borrowing, and decentralized exchanges.

Additionally, Ethereum operates on its native blockchain, allowing developers to create their own tokens and launch Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs). This has paved the way for the emergence of numerous projects and tokens built on the Ethereum network, contributing to its overall popularity and market dominance.

Furthermore, Ethereum is known for its scalability solutions. The platform is currently transitioning from a proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism to a proof-of-stake (PoS) model, known as Ethereum 2.0. This upgrade aims to improve transaction speed, reduce energy consumption, and enhance overall network security.

As an investor, understanding Ethereum and its potential applications is crucial. Its versatility and growing ecosystem make it an attractive investment option. However, like any investment, it is important to conduct thorough research and consider various factors before making any decisions.

2.3. Ripple (XRP)

Ripple (XRP) is a popular cryptocurrency that stands out from other digital currencies due to its unique approach and purpose. Unlike Bitcoin or Ethereum, Ripple was not created to be a decentralized currency for individual transactions. Instead, it serves as a digital payment protocol and network for facilitating fast, low-cost international money transfers.

Ripple aims to revolutionize the traditional banking system by providing a seamless and efficient method for transferring money globally. It enables individuals and institutions to send and receive payments in any currency quickly and securely. By utilizing its native currency XRP, Ripple ensures liquidity and helps facilitate instant transactions.

One of the key features of Ripple is its consensus algorithm, called the Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (RPCA). This algorithm enables the verification and confirmation of transactions without the need for a central authority, making it highly secure and resistant to attacks.

Furthermore, Ripple has gained significant traction and partnerships with various financial institutions, including banks and payment providers. Its technology has been adopted by many major players in the industry, making it a reliable and trusted platform.

Investing in Ripple (XRP) can be a strategic move for individuals looking to capitalize on the potential of this cryptocurrency. However, as with any investment, it is essential to conduct thorough research and analysis before making any decisions. Understanding the market dynamics, the technology behind Ripple, and its potential for growth are crucial factors to consider.

In conclusion, Ripple (XRP) offers a unique value proposition in the cryptocurrency market. With its focus on revolutionizing cross-border payments, it has positioned itself as a key player in the financial industry. As the adoption of digital currencies continues to grow, Ripple’s potential for success and profitability cannot be overlooked.

2.4. Litecoin (LTC)

Litecoin (LTC) is one of the most popular cryptocurrencies in the market. It was created in 2011 by Charlie Lee, a former Google engineer. Often referred to as the ‘silver to Bitcoin’s gold,’ Litecoin offers faster transaction confirmations and a different hashing algorithm compared to Bitcoin. This makes it a preferred choice for many users who value speed and efficiency in their transactions.

Litecoin operates on a decentralized network, similar to Bitcoin, and allows users to send and receive payments globally. It utilizes blockchain technology to ensure secure and transparent transactions. With its low transaction fees and fast block generation time, Litecoin has gained significant traction among cryptocurrency enthusiasts.

One of the key features of Litecoin is its potential for scalability. It has the ability to handle a larger volume of transactions compared to Bitcoin, making it a viable option for daily transactions. Additionally, Litecoin has a maximum supply limit of 84 million coins, four times higher than Bitcoin’s 21 million.

Litecoin has also established itself as a testbed for implementing new technologies in the cryptocurrency space. It has been at the forefront of adopting innovations such as Segregated Witness (SegWit) and the Lightning Network, which further enhance its transaction capabilities.

Investing in Litecoin can be a lucrative opportunity for investors looking to diversify their cryptocurrency portfolio. As with any investment, it is important to conduct thorough research and understand the risks involved. By staying informed about the latest developments and market trends, investors can make well-informed decisions to maximize their profits in the ever-evolving cryptocurrency market.

3. Fundamental Analysis for Cryptocurrency Investing

Fundamental analysis is a crucial tool for cryptocurrency investors looking to maximize profits. Unlike technical analysis, which focuses on chart patterns and market trends, fundamental analysis delves into the underlying factors that affect the value of a cryptocurrency.

When conducting fundamental analysis, investors examine various aspects of a cryptocurrency, such as its technology, team, partnerships, adoption rate, and market demand. By analyzing these fundamental factors, investors can gain insights into the long-term potential and value of a cryptocurrency.

One key aspect of fundamental analysis is evaluating the technology behind a cryptocurrency. Investors assess the blockchain technology, consensus mechanism, scalability, security features, and any unique functionalities that set the cryptocurrency apart from others. A robust and innovative technology can indicate a higher potential for long-term success.

Another important consideration is the team behind the cryptocurrency. Investors look into the qualifications, experience, and reputation of the development team and advisors. A strong team with a proven track record can instill confidence in investors and enhance the credibility of the cryptocurrency.

Partnerships and collaborations also play a significant role in fundamental analysis. Investors consider whether the cryptocurrency has established partnerships with reputable companies or organizations. Such partnerships can provide opportunities for real-world adoption and increase the value of the cryptocurrency.

Furthermore, the adoption rate of a cryptocurrency is a crucial factor to evaluate. Investors analyze whether the cryptocurrency is being widely accepted and used by individuals, businesses, or institutions. A higher adoption rate indicates a growing demand and potential for increased value.

Market demand is another fundamental factor to consider. Investors assess the overall market sentiment towards the cryptocurrency, including factors like trading volume, liquidity, and price stability. A high demand for the cryptocurrency can indicate a positive outlook for future price appreciation.

By conducting thorough fundamental analysis, cryptocurrency investors can make more informed investment decisions. It is important to gather and analyze relevant information about the cryptocurrency’s technology, team, partnerships, adoption rate, and market demand. This comprehensive understanding can help investors identify cryptocurrencies with strong potential for maximizing profits in the long run.

3.1. Understanding market capitalization

Market capitalization is a crucial concept to understand when it comes to investing in cryptocurrencies. It refers to the total value of a cryptocurrency or the entire market. Market cap is calculated by multiplying the circulating supply of coins or tokens by their current price.

Market capitalization helps investors gauge the size and potential of a cryptocurrency. It is often used as a measure to compare different cryptocurrencies and determine their relative value. Cryptocurrencies with a higher market cap are generally considered more established and have a higher level of liquidity.

However, market capitalization alone should not be the sole factor in making investment decisions. It is important to consider other factors such as the project’s technology, team, utility, and market demand. Market cap can be influenced by various factors, including investor sentiment, media coverage, and market trends.

In conclusion, understanding market capitalization is essential for fundamental analysis in cryptocurrency investing. It provides valuable insights into the size and potential of a cryptocurrency, but should be considered along with other key factors when making investment decisions.

3.2. Evaluating the technology behind a cryptocurrency

When it comes to evaluating the technology behind a cryptocurrency, conducting a fundamental analysis is crucial for investors looking to make informed decisions. Fundamental analysis involves assessing the underlying technology and its potential for long-term success.

One key aspect to consider is the cryptocurrency’s blockchain technology. The blockchain serves as the backbone of the cryptocurrency, recording and verifying all transactions in a transparent and immutable manner. It is essential to evaluate the scalability, security, and efficiency of the blockchain, as these factors can greatly impact the cryptocurrency’s usability and adoption.

Additionally, understanding the consensus mechanism employed by the cryptocurrency is vital. Different cryptocurrencies utilize various consensus mechanisms such as Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS), or Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS). Each mechanism has its own advantages and disadvantages, and it is important to assess which one aligns with the goals and values of the cryptocurrency.

Furthermore, examining the development team behind the cryptocurrency is crucial. A talented and experienced team with a clear roadmap and vision can greatly enhance the chances of the cryptocurrency’s success. Researching the team’s qualifications, past projects, and contributions to the blockchain community can provide valuable insights into their capabilities.

Moreover, it is essential to evaluate the cryptocurrency’s use case and potential real-world applications. Assessing whether the cryptocurrency solves a significant problem or offers a unique solution in a particular industry can help determine its long-term viability and potential for growth.

Lastly, staying updated with the latest news and developments in the cryptocurrency space is vital. Monitoring industry trends, regulatory changes, partnerships, and technological advancements can provide valuable information for evaluating the technology behind a cryptocurrency.

In conclusion, conducting a thorough fundamental analysis of the technology behind a cryptocurrency is crucial for investors to make informed decisions. Evaluating the blockchain technology, consensus mechanism, development team, use case, and staying updated with industry trends are all important factors in assessing a cryptocurrency’s potential for long-term success.

3.3. Assessing the development team and community

Assessing the development team and community is a crucial step in conducting a fundamental analysis for cryptocurrency investing. The success and potential of a cryptocurrency project heavily rely on the strength and competency of its development team, as well as the engagement and support from its community.

When evaluating the development team, it is important to consider their experience, qualifications, and track record in the industry. A team with a solid background in blockchain technology, programming, and finance is more likely to deliver a high-quality and innovative product. Additionally, it is beneficial to research the team members’ previous projects and their level of involvement in the cryptocurrency community.

The community surrounding a cryptocurrency project also holds significant importance. A strong and active community indicates a higher level of interest and support for the project. This can be measured by assessing factors such as the size of the community, social media presence, and level of engagement in discussions and events related to the project. A vibrant community not only contributes to the project’s credibility but also increases its chances of long-term success.

By thoroughly assessing the development team and community, investors can gain valuable insights into the potential growth and stability of a cryptocurrency project. This analysis helps in making informed investment decisions and maximizing profits in the highly volatile cryptocurrency market.

3.4. Analyzing the use case and potential adoption

Fundamental analysis is a crucial aspect of cryptocurrency investing as it allows investors to evaluate the underlying value and potential of a particular cryptocurrency. By analyzing various factors such as the project’s technology, team, market demand, and overall market conditions, investors can make informed decisions about the potential adoption and future growth of a cryptocurrency.

One of the key elements in fundamental analysis is understanding the use case of a cryptocurrency. This involves examining the purpose and functionality of the cryptocurrency within its respective ecosystem. For example, some cryptocurrencies aim to serve as digital currencies for everyday transactions, while others focus on providing a decentralized platform for executing smart contracts.

Analyzing the use case helps investors determine whether a cryptocurrency has a practical application in the real world. A strong use case indicates that there is a demand for the cryptocurrency and that it could potentially gain widespread adoption.

Another important factor to consider in fundamental analysis is the potential adoption of a cryptocurrency. This involves evaluating the current and future market demand for the cryptocurrency. Factors such as partnerships with established companies, regulatory support, and community engagement can influence the adoption rate of a cryptocurrency.

Investors should also analyze the team behind the cryptocurrency project. A competent and experienced team increases the likelihood of successful execution and adoption of the cryptocurrency. By assessing the expertise and track record of the team members, investors can gauge the project’s potential for success.

Overall, fundamental analysis plays a vital role in cryptocurrency investing. It helps investors understand the value proposition, potential adoption, and long-term sustainability of a cryptocurrency, enabling them to make well-informed investment decisions.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Ultimate Cryptocurrency Investing Bible provides a comprehensive guide that is essential for anyone looking to maximize their profits in the cryptocurrency market. With detailed insights into the fundamentals of investing, risk management strategies, and tips for choosing the right cryptocurrencies, this guide offers a valuable resource for both beginners and experienced investors. By applying the knowledge and techniques shared in this guide, individuals can navigate the volatile cryptocurrency market with confidence and increase their chances of achieving substantial profits.

7 comments

  1. Thank you for sharing this informative post on maximizing cryptocurrency investments and enhancing profits. This comprehensive guide seems to offer valuable insights into the crypto market, providing strategies and tips to succeed in this rapidly evolving industry. I appreciate the effort put into compiling such an extensive resource, and I am eager to delve deeper into the content.

  2. This is an excellent resource for anyone looking to make the most out of their cryptocurrency investments and increase their profits. The guide provides a comprehensive overview of the crypto market, along with valuable strategies and tips to succeed in this ever-evolving industry. Whether youre a beginner or an experienced investor, this guide will equip you with the knowledge and tools to maximize your returns. Dont miss out on this opportunity to stay ahead of the game and secure your financial future in the world of cryptocurrencies.

  3. As a normal human visitor, I would like to express my appreciation for this comprehensive guide on maximizing cryptocurrency investments and enhancing profitability. The strategies and tips provided in this post offer valuable insights into the crypto market, enabling individuals to navigate this dynamic landscape with confidence and effectiveness. The information presented here not only facilitates a deeper understanding of cryptocurrencies but also equips readers with the tools necessary to make informed investment decisions. By leveraging these strategies, individuals can position themselves for success and potentially capitalize on the opportunities presented by the crypto market. Thank you for sharing this valuable resource.

  4. Sounds like just what I need! Cant wait to dive into this guide and level up my crypto investments. Bring on the strategies and tips! 💪🚀

  5. As a normal human visitor, I find this post on [object Object] quite intriguing. The comprehensive guide promises to provide valuable insights on maximizing cryptocurrency investments and boosting profits. I am particularly interested in learning the best strategies and tips to succeed in the dynamic crypto market. It is scientifically proven that a well-informed approach can significantly enhance investment outcomes. Therefore, I am eager to delve into this guide and explore the potential it holds for optimizing my crypto investments.

  6. As a human visitor, I find the post [object Object] intriguing. The excerpt suggests it is a comprehensive guide aimed at maximizing cryptocurrency investments and enhancing profits. It promises to provide the best strategies and tips to succeed in the dynamic crypto market. I am particularly interested in exploring the scientific approach behind these strategies and learning how they can be implemented effectively.

  7. Thank you for sharing this informative post on maximizing cryptocurrency investments and boosting profits. I appreciate the efforts put into compiling this comprehensive guide. Learning the best strategies and tips to succeed in the dynamic crypto market is crucial for any investor. I look forward to reading and implementing the insights provided in this resourceful guide.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *